Download free pdf Think Python 2015 ebook

 

Download free pdf Think Python 2015 ebook

 

Download free pdf Think Python 2015 ebook

Download free pdf Think Python 2015 ebook

Overview:

The goal of this book is to teach you to think like a computer scientist. This way of thinking combines some of the best features of mathematics, engineering, and natural science. Like mathematicians, computer scientists use formal languages to denote ideas (specifically computations). Like engineers, they design things, assembling components
into systems and evaluating tradeoffs among alternatives. Like scientists, they observe the behavior of complex systems, form hypotheses, and test predictions.
The single most important skill for a computer scientist is problem solving. Problem solving means the ability to formulate problems, think creatively about solutions, and express a solution clearly and accurately. As it turns out, the process of learning to program is an excellent opportunity to practice problem-solving skills. That’s why this
chapter is called, “The way of the program.” On one level, you will be learning to program, a useful skill by itself. On another level, you will use programming as a means to an end. As we go along, that end will become clearer.

The Python Programming Language:

The programming language you will learn is Python. Python is an example of a highlevel language; other high-level languages you might have heard of are C, C++, Perl, and Java. There are also low-level languages, sometimes referred to as “machine languages” or “assembly languages.” Loosely speaking, computers can only run programs written in low-level languages. So programs written in a high-level language have to be processed before they can run. This extra processing takes some time, which is a small disadvantage of high-level languages.This book(Download free pdf Think Python 2015 ebook) contains these contents.

Table of Contents:

1. The Way of the Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
The Python Programming Language 1
What Is a Program? 3
What Is Debugging? 4
Syntax Errors 4
Runtime Errors 4
Semantic Errors 5
Experimental Debugging 5
Formal and Natural Languages 6
The First Program 7
Debugging 8
Glossary 9
Exercises 11
2. Variables, Expressions, and Statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Values and Types 13
Variables 14
Variable Names and Keywords 15
Operators and Operands 16
Expressions and Statements 16
Interactive Mode and Script Mode 17
Order of Operations 18
String Operations 18
Comments 19
Debugging 19
Glossary 20
3. Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Function Calls 23
Type Conversion Functions 23
Math Functions 24
Composition 25
Adding New Functions 25
Definitions and Uses 27
Flow of Execution 27
Parameters and Arguments 28
Variables and Parameters Are Local 29
Stack Diagrams 30
Fruitful Functions and Void Functions 31
Why Functions? 32
Importing with from 32
Debugging 33
Glossary 33
Exercises 35
4. Case Study: Interface Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
TurtleWorld 37
Simple Repetition 38
Exercises 39
Encapsulation 40
Generalization 41
Interface Design 42
Refactoring 43
A Development Plan 44
Docstring 44
Debugging 45
Glossary 45
Exercises 46
5. Conditionals and Recursion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Modulus Operator 49
Boolean Expressions 49
Logical Operators 50
Conditional Execution 50
Alternative Execution 51
Chained Conditionals 51
Nested Conditionals 52

6. Fruitful Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Return Values 61
Incremental Development 62
Composition 64
Boolean Functions 65
More Recursion 66
Leap of Faith 68
One More Example 68
Checking Types 69
Debugging 70
Glossary 71
Exercises 72
7. Iteration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Multiple Assignment 75
Updating Variables 76
The while Statement 76
break 78
Square Roots 79
Algorithms 80
Debugging 81
Glossary 81
Exercises 82
8. Strings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A String Is a Sequence 85
len 86
Traversal with a for Loop 86
String Slices 87
Strings Are Immutable 88
Searching 89
Looping and Counting 89
String Methods 90
The in Operator 91

String Comparison 92
Debugging 92
Glossary 94
Exercises 95
9. Case Study: Word Play. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Reading Word Lists 97
Exercises 98
Search 99
Looping with Indices 100
Debugging 102
Glossary 102
Exercises 103
10. Lists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
A List Is a Sequence 105
Lists Are Mutable 106
Traversing a List 107
List Operations 107
List Slices 108
List Methods 108
Map, Filter, and Reduce 109
Deleting Elements 111
Lists and Strings 112
Objects and Values 112
Aliasing 113
List Arguments 114
Debugging 116
Glossary 117
Exercises 118
11. Dictionaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Dictionary as a Set of Counters 123
Looping and Dictionaries 124
Reverse Lookup 125
Dictionaries and Lists 126
Memos 128
Global Variables 129
Long Integers 130
Debugging 131

12. Tuples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Tuples Are Immutable 135
Tuple Assignment 136
Tuples as Return Values 137
Variable-Length Argument Tuples 137
Lists and Tuples 138
Dictionaries and Tuples 139
Comparing Tuples 141
Sequences of Sequences 142
Debugging 143
Glossary 144
Exercises 144
13. Case Study: Data Structure Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Word Frequency Analysis 147
Random Numbers 148
Word Histogram 149
Most Common Words 150
Optional Parameters 151
Dictionary Subtraction 151
Random Words 152
Markov Analysis 153
Data Structures 154
Debugging 156
Glossary 157
Exercises 158
14. Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Persistence 159
Reading and Writing 159
Format Operator 160
Filenames and Paths 161
Catching Exceptions 162
Databases 163
Pickling 164
Pipes 165
Writing Modules 166
Debugging 167

15. Classes and Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
User-Defined Types 171
Attributes 172
Rectangles 173
Instances as Return Values 174
Objects Are Mutable 175
Copying 176
Debugging 177
Glossary 178
Exercises 178
16. Classes and Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Time 181
Pure Functions 182
Modifiers 183
Prototyping Versus Planning 184
Debugging 185
Glossary 186
Exercises 187
17. Classes and Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Object-Oriented Features 189
Printing Objects 190
Another Example 191
A More Complicated Example 192
The init Method 192
The __str__ Method 193
Operator Overloading 194
Type-Based Dispatch 194
Polymorphism 196
Debugging 197
Interface and Implementation 197
Glossary 198
Exercises 199
18. Inheritance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Card Objects 201
Class Attributes 202
Comparing Cards 204
Decks 205

Printing the Deck 205
Add, Remove, Shuffle, and Sort 206
Inheritance 207
Class Diagrams 209
Debugging 210
Data Encapsulation 211
Glossary 212
Exercises 213
19. Case Study: Tkinter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
GUI 217
Buttons and Callbacks 218
Canvas Widgets 219
Coordinate Sequences 220
More Widgets 221
Packing Widgets 222
Menus and Callables 224
Binding 225
Debugging 227
Glossary 229

Download free pdf Think Python 2015 ebook

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Download free pdf Think Python 2015 ebook

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