Crash Course Metabolism and Nutrition ebook free download pdf

 

Crash Course Metabolism and Nutrition ebook free download pdf

Crash Course Metabolism and Nutrition ebook free download pdf

Crash Course Metabolism and Nutrition ebook free download pdf

Crash Course Metabolism and Nutrition ebook free download pdf

Preface

I discovered digestion system the most difficult segment of my undergrad study. I trust this has eventually contributed emphatically to the advancement of this book what’s more, that my own particular testing encounters attempting to recognize the components of (frequently complex) natural chemistry subjects important to pharmaceutical have served to make the correlated data open. My point has been to empower perusers to minimize the considering needed to handle the more exclusive ideas fundamental biochemical hypothesis.

Contents

1. Introduction to metabolism. . . . . . . . . 1
Introductory concepts . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Pathway regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Key players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. Energy metabolism I: The TCA cycle . . . 13
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle . . . . . 13
3. Energy metabolism II: ATP generation. . . 17
ATP generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Substrate-level phosphorylation . . . . . . 17
Oxidative phosphorylation . . . . . . . . 17
4. Carbohydrate metabolism . . . . . . . . 23
Carbohydrates: A definition . . . . . . . . 23
Glycolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
The pyruvate ! acetyl CoA reaction . . . 30
Gluconeogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Glycogen metabolism . . . . . . . . . . 33
The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) . . 37
Fructose, Galactose, Sorbitol and Ethanol . 40
5. Lipid transport and metabolism. . . . . . 45
Lipids: An introduction . . . . . . . . . . 45
Fatty acid biosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . 48
Lipid catabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Cholesterol metabolism. . . . . . . . . . 59
Lipid transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Ketones and ketogenesis . . . . . . . . . 67
6. Protein metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Protein structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Amino acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Key reactions in amino acid metabolism . . 71
Amino acid synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Biological derivatives of amino acids . . . . 77
Nitrogen balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Amino acid catabolism . . . . . . . . . . 78
The urea cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Protein synthesis and degradation . . . . . 82
7. Purines, pyrimidines and haem . . . . . . 87
One-carbon pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Purine metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Pyrimidine metabolism . . . . . . . . . . 95
Haem metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
8. Glucose homeostasis . . . . . . . . . . 107
The states of glucose homeostasis . . . . . 107
Hormonal control of glucose homeostasis . 111
Glucose homeostasis in exercise . . . . . . 112
Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9. Digestion, malnutrition and obesity. . . . 121
Basic principles of human nutrition . . . . 121
Energy balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Proteins and nutrition . . . . . . . . . . 128
10. Nutrition: Vitamins and vitamin
deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Vitamins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Fat-soluble vitamins . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Water-soluble vitamins . . . . . . . . . . 137
11. Nutrition: Minerals and trace elements . . 149
Classification of minerals . . . . . . . . . 149
Calcium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Phosphorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Sodium, potassium and chloride. . . . . . 152
Sulphur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Zinc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Iodine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Other trace elements . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Symptoms of mineral deficiencies . . . . . 160
12. Clinical assessment of metabolic and nutrional disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Presentation of metabolic and nutritional
disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Common presenting complaints. . . . . . 163
History taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Things to remember when taking a history. 166
Communication skills . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Physical examination . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Further investigations. . . . . . . . . . . 179
Routine investigations . . . . . . . . . . 179
Assessment of nutritional status . . . . . . 186
Best-of-five questions (BOFs). . . . . . . . . 191
Extended-matching questions (EMQs). . . . . 201
BOF answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
EMQ answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Crash Course Metabolism and Nutrition ebook free download pdf

Crash Course Metabolism and Nutrition ebook free download pdf

Crash Course Metabolism and Nutrition ebook free download pdf

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